Mathematics News - Math News, Mathematical Sciences
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en-usPhys.org provides the latest news on mathematics, math, math science, mathematical science and math technology. Brewing a better espresso, with a shot of mathMathematicians, physicists, and materials experts might not spring to mind as the first people to consult about whether you are brewing your coffee right. But a team of such researchers from around the globe—the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and Switzerland—are challenging common espresso wisdom, finding that fewer coffee beans, ground more coarsely, are the key to a drink that is cheaper to make, more consistent from shot to shot, and just as strong. Their work appears January 22 in the journal Matter.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-brewing-espresso-shot-math.html
Mathematics Wed, 22 Jan 2020 11:00:02 ESTnews498890030General relativity used to find optimal airplane boarding speedA team of researchers from Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Riga Technical University and Ben-Gurion University has created a mathematical model that can be used to predict boarding times for airplanes based on the boarding speed of individual passengers. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review E, the group describes using Lorentzian geometry to create their model, and what it showed.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-relativity-optimal-airplane-boarding.html
Mathematics Wed, 22 Jan 2020 09:20:01 ESTnews498906623Wisdom of the crowd? Building better forecasts from suboptimal predictorsResearchers at the University of Tokyo and Kozo Keikaku Engineering Inc. have introduced a method for enhancing the power of existing algorithms to forecast the future of unknown time series. By combining the predictions of many suboptimal forecasts, they were able to construct a consensus prediction that tended to outperform existing methods. This research may help provide early warnings for floods, economic shocks, or changes in the weather.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-wisdom-crowd-suboptimal-predictors.html
Mathematics Mon, 20 Jan 2020 07:34:36 ESTnews498728064Model shows Welsh language in no danger of extinction but te reo Māori is on its way outA team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in New Zealand has developed a mathematical model that can be used to predict whether a language is at risk of disappearing. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the group describes their model and how it can be used.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-welsh-language-danger-extinction-te.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Thu, 09 Jan 2020 09:50:02 ESTnews497784201Using math and mechanics to explain how bivalve shells fit together so wellUsing math and mechanics, a trio of researchers, two from the University of Oxford, the other the University of Lyon, have learned more about how bivalve shells fit together so well. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Derek Moulton, Alain Goriely and Régis Chirat describe their approach to understanding the interlocking mechanism of bivalve shells.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-math-mechanics-bivalve-shells.html
Mathematics Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:20:01 ESTnews495800104The mathematics of prey detection in spider orb-websSpider webs are one of nature's most fascinating manifestations. Many spiders extrude proteinaceous silk to weave sticky webs that ensnare unsuspecting prey who venture into their threads. Despite their elasticity, these webs possess incredible tensile strength. In recent years, scientists have expressed increased interest in the spider orb-web as a biological-mechanical system. The web's sensory mechanisms are especially fascinating, given that most web-weaving spiders—regardless of their vision level—use generated vibrations to effectively locate ensnared prey.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-mathematics-prey-spider-orb-webs.html
Mathematics Thu, 12 Dec 2019 12:26:07 ESTnews495375963Researchers develop first mathematical proof for key law of turbulence in fluid mechanicsWhat if engineers could design a better jet with mathematical equations that drastically reduce the need for experimental testing? Or what if weather prediction models could predict details in the movement of heat from the ocean into a hurricane? These things are impossible now, but could be possible in the future with a more complete mathematical understanding of the laws of turbulence.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-mathematical-proof-key-law-turbulence.html
Mathematics Wed, 11 Dec 2019 12:53:02 ESTnews495291176Best of the best: Who makes the most accurate decisions in expert groups?Experts don't always agree with one another when making predictions or diagnoses. So how can we find out which expert in a group makes the best and most accurate decisions? An interdisciplinary team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries has developed a simple method for identifying the most accurate experts and tested it successfully in various groups. Their findings have been published in Science Advances.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-accurate-decisions-expert-groups.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Wed, 20 Nov 2019 14:00:07 ESTnews493465129New statistical model improves the predictive power of standardized test scoresA standout essay, high grade point average and stellar standardized test scores are sometimes not enough for college admissions.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-statistical-power-standardized-scores.html
Mathematics Education Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:02:59 ESTnews493401771Sorry, wrong number: Statistical benchmark comes under fireEarlier this fall Dr. Scott Solomon presented the results of a huge heart drug study to an audience of fellow cardiologists in Paris.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-wrong-statistical-benchmark.html
Mathematics Tue, 12 Nov 2019 12:24:51 ESTnews492783885Information theory as a forensics tool for investigating climate mysteriesDuring Earth's last glacial period, temperatures on the planet periodically spiked dramatically and rapidly. Data in layers of ice of Greenland and Antarctica show that these warming events—called Dansgaard-Oeschger and Antarctic Isotope Maximum events—occurred at least 25 times. Each time, in a matter of decades, temperatures climbed 5-10 degrees Celsius, then cooled again, gradually. While there remain several competing theories for the still-unexplained mechanisms behind these spikes, a new paper in the journal Chaos suggests that mathematics from information theory could offer a powerful tool for analyzing and understanding them.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-theory-forensics-tool-climate-mysteries.html
Mathematics Thu, 17 Oct 2019 03:30:07 ESTnews490501800Where to park your car, according to mathJust as mathematics reveals the motions of the stars and the rhythms of nature, it can also shed light on the more mundane decisions of everyday life. Where to park your car, for example, is the subject of a new look at a classic optimization problem by physicists Paul Krapivsky (Boston University) and Sidney Redner (Santa Fe Institute) published in this week's Journal of Statistical Mechanics.
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-car-math.html
Mathematics Fri, 20 Sep 2019 03:11:27 ESTnews488167879The ever-winning lottery ticket: Mathematicians solve a dusty mysteryIs there a lottery ticket that always wins? So goes the popular version of a theoretical conundrum posed in 1969 by English mathematician Adrian R.D. Mathias within the field of set theory, an area dealing with infinity in mathematics.
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-ever-winning-lottery-ticket-mathematicians-dusty.html
Mathematics Mon, 09 Sep 2019 11:22:14 ESTnews487246912Sum of three cubes for 42 finally solved—using real life planetary computerHot on the heels of the ground-breaking 'Sum-Of-Three-Cubes' solution for the number 33, a team led by the University of Bristol and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has solved the final piece of the famous 65-year-old maths puzzle with an answer for the most elusive number of all—42.
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-sum-cubes-solvedusing-real-life.html
Mathematics Fri, 06 Sep 2019 12:13:22 ESTnews486990789Eminent scientist's 160-year-old theories aid light wave discoveryA previously unknown type of light wave has been discovered by researchers, based on the pioneering work of a 19th century Scottish scientist.
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-eminent-scientist-year-old-theories-aid.html
Mathematics Tue, 03 Sep 2019 11:56:31 ESTnews486730585Using a bank analysis tool to make predictions about a national or global financial crisisTwo economics professor have modified a commonly used bank assessment tool to make predictions about a national or global financial crisis. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nobel Laureate Robert Engle and Tianyue Ruan of the National University of Singapore describe how they modified the tool and what it revealed.
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-bank-analysis-tool-national-global.html
Mathematics Economics & Business Fri, 30 Aug 2019 09:20:03 ESTnews486375020Ranking cities around the world by transportation accessibilityA trio of researchers at the Polytechnic University of Turin and Sony CSL Paris has ranked the major cities of the world by transportation accessibility to highlight inequality in major urban areas. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, Indaco Biazzo, Bernardo Monechi and Vittorio Loreto describe their study and explain what it shows.
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-cities-world-accessibility.html
Mathematics Wed, 28 Aug 2019 10:17:23 ESTnews486206236First of its kind mapping model tracks how hate spreads and adapts onlineOnline hate thrives globally through self-organized, scalable clusters that interconnect to form resilient networks spread across multiple social media platforms, countries and languages, according to new research published today in the journal Nature. Researchers at the George Washington University developed a mapping model, the first of its kind, to track how these online hate clusters thrive. They believe it could help social media platforms and law enforcement in the battle against hate online.
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-kind-tracks-online.html
Mathematics Wed, 21 Aug 2019 13:00:05 ESTnews485584448Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cutsResearchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-mathematical-framework-sheet-material-kirigami.html
Mathematics Tue, 20 Aug 2019 16:35:41 ESTnews485537728Animal collectives like ants should move through their environment like 'savvy gamblers'Many animals have to move around in their environment to find resources to live and reproduce.
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-animal-ants-environment-savvy-gamblers.html
Mathematics Tue, 06 Aug 2019 19:00:03 ESTnews484323656An algorithm developed to study the structure of galaxies helps explain a key feature of embryonic developmentAs embryos develop, they follow predetermined patterns of tissue folding, so that individuals of the same species end up with nearly identically shaped organs and very similar body shapes.
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-algorithm-galaxies-key-feature-embryonic.html
Mathematics Thu, 25 Jul 2019 12:30:08 ESTnews483276596Illusive patterns in math explained by ideas in physicsPatterns appear widely throughout nature and math, from the Fibonacci spirals of sea shells to the periodicity of crystals. But certain math problems can sometimes trick the human solver into seeing a pattern, but then, out of the blue, the pattern suddenly disappears. These illusive patterns crop up in many areas of math, with one example coming from certain calculus integrals that have deceived the intuition of even the best mathematicians.
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-illusive-patterns-math-ideas-physics.html
Mathematics Thu, 18 Jul 2019 06:00:01 ESTnews482637571Ramanujan machine automatically generates conjectures for fundamental constantsA team of researchers at the Israel Institute of Technology has built what they describe as a Ramanujan machine—a device that automatically generates conjectures (mathematical statements that are proposed as true statements) for fundamental constants. They have written a paper describing their device and have uploaded it to the arXiv preprint server. They have also created a webpage for people who wish to allow the network to use their computer's process cycles, suggest a proof or develop code toward new mathematical structures.
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-ramanujan-machine-automatically-conjectures-fundamental.html
Mathematics Mon, 15 Jul 2019 10:30:01 ESTnews482398317Mathematician to present a proof of the Sensitivity ConjectureThe Sensitivity Conjecture has stood as one of the most important, and baffling, open problems in theoretical computer science for nearly three decades. It appears to have finally met its match through work by Hao Huang, an assistant professor of mathematics at Emory University.
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-mathematician-proof-sensitivity-conjecture.html
Mathematics Wed, 10 Jul 2019 08:59:25 ESTnews481967944Expert mathematicians stumped by simple subtractionsMathematical thought is seen as the pinnacle of abstract thinking. But are we capable of filtering out our knowledge about the world to prevent it from interfering with our calculations? Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, and the University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France, have demonstrated that our ability to solve mathematical problems is influenced by non-mathematical knowledge, which often results in mistakes. The findings, published in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, indicate that high-level mathematicians can be duped by some aspects of their knowledge about the world and fail to solve primary school-level subtraction problems. It follows that this bias needs to be factored into the way mathematics is taught.
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-expert-mathematicians-stumped-simple.html
Mathematics Education Wed, 10 Jul 2019 08:39:06 ESTnews481966737Scent composition data reveal new insights into perfume successMathematical analysis of online perfume data shows how the unique scent combinations found in different perfumes contribute to product popularity and consumer ratings. Vaiva Vasiliauskaite and Tim Evans of Imperial College London, U.K., present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on July 3, 2019.
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-scent-composition-reveal-insights-perfume.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Wed, 03 Jul 2019 14:00:08 ESTnews481352701Study explores how gossip spreads in social networksHow many different types of people—colleagues, friends, taxi drivers, etc.—should we hear a piece of information from before we start sharing it as a true fact?
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-explores-gossip-social-networks.html
Mathematics Tue, 18 Jun 2019 07:14:46 ESTnews480060876The hidden structure of the periodic systemThe periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer and the approaches of other chemists to organize the elements, involve different forms of representation of a hidden structure of the chemical elements. This is the conclusion reached by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig and the University of Leipzig in a recent paper. The mathematical approach of the Leipzig scientists is very general and can provide many different periodic systems depending on the principle of order and classification—not only for chemistry, but also for many other fields of knowledge.
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-hidden-periodic.html
Mathematics Mon, 17 Jun 2019 07:26:57 ESTnews479975194Mathematicians work out how to predict success in show businessMathematicians from Queen Mary University of London have found a way to predict whether an actor's career has peaked or if their most successful days lie ahead.
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-mathematicians-success-business.html
Mathematics Tue, 04 Jun 2019 11:00:01 ESTnews478857467Phase transitions: The math behind the musicNext time you listen to a favorite tune or wonder at the beauty of a natural sound, you might also end up pondering the math behind the music.
https://phys.org/news/2019-05-phase-transitions-math-music.html
Mathematics Thu, 23 May 2019 09:46:52 ESTnews477823603