Mathematics News - Math News, Mathematical Sciences
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en-usPhys.org provides the latest news on mathematics, math, math science, mathematical science and math technology. Brewing a better espresso, with a shot of mathMathematicians, physicists, and materials experts might not spring to mind as the first people to consult about whether you are brewing your coffee right. But a team of such researchers from around the globe—the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and Switzerland—are challenging common espresso wisdom, finding that fewer coffee beans, ground more coarsely, are the key to a drink that is cheaper to make, more consistent from shot to shot, and just as strong. Their work appears January 22 in the journal Matter.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-brewing-espresso-shot-math.html
Mathematics Wed, 22 Jan 2020 11:00:02 ESTnews498890030General relativity used to find optimal airplane boarding speedA team of researchers from Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Riga Technical University and Ben-Gurion University has created a mathematical model that can be used to predict boarding times for airplanes based on the boarding speed of individual passengers. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review E, the group describes using Lorentzian geometry to create their model, and what it showed.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-relativity-optimal-airplane-boarding.html
Mathematics Wed, 22 Jan 2020 09:20:01 ESTnews498906623Mathematician simplifies methods for solving equations of magnetic hydrodynamicsA mathematician from RUDN University has found a new criterion for the regularity of generalized solutions of the equations of magnetic hydrodynamics for an incompressible fluid in three-dimensional space. The use of this criterion simplifies the search for solutions to such equations and can help metallurgists to model the behavior of molten metal, as well as astrophysicists to describe stellar plasma. The article was published in the Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-mathematician-methods-equations-magnetic-hydrodynamics.html
Mathematics Wed, 22 Jan 2020 09:10:38 ESTnews498906634Wisdom of the crowd? Building better forecasts from suboptimal predictorsResearchers at the University of Tokyo and Kozo Keikaku Engineering Inc. have introduced a method for enhancing the power of existing algorithms to forecast the future of unknown time series. By combining the predictions of many suboptimal forecasts, they were able to construct a consensus prediction that tended to outperform existing methods. This research may help provide early warnings for floods, economic shocks, or changes in the weather.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-wisdom-crowd-suboptimal-predictors.html
Mathematics Mon, 20 Jan 2020 07:34:36 ESTnews498728064From election upsets to climate chaos, rolling the dice helps us appreciate the odds"He [God] does not play dice," quipped Albert Einstein, but for mortals chance is part of life. We cannot experience, measure and predict with absolute certainty. We may win a prize in a Christmas raffle. There's also a small but real chance of being struck by lightning.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-election-climate-chaos-dice-odds.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Wed, 15 Jan 2020 09:10:01 ESTnews498299409Mathematicians put famous Battle of Britain 'what if' scenarios to the testMathematicians have used a statistical technique to interrogate some of the big "what if" questions in the Second World War battle for Britain's skies.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-mathematicians-famous-britain-scenarios.html
Mathematics Political science Thu, 09 Jan 2020 12:28:05 ESTnews497795282Model shows Welsh language in no danger of extinction but te reo Māori is on its way outA team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in New Zealand has developed a mathematical model that can be used to predict whether a language is at risk of disappearing. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the group describes their model and how it can be used.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-welsh-language-danger-extinction-te.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Thu, 09 Jan 2020 09:50:02 ESTnews497784201New mathematical model shows how diversity speeds consensusScientific literature abounds with examples of ways in which member diversity can benefit a group—whether spider colonies' ability to forage or an industrial company's financial performance. Now, a newly published mathematical framework substantiates the seemingly counterintuitive observations made by prior scholars: Interaction among dissimilar individuals can speed consensus.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-mathematical-diversity-consensus.html
Mathematics Wed, 08 Jan 2020 12:57:20 ESTnews497710637Hermit crabs' lesson on wealth inequalityCan hermit crabs teach us about a common global problem—wealth inequality? The answer is yes, according to a first-of-its-kind study published in the January issue of Physica A.
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-hermit-crabs-lesson-wealth-inequality.html
Mathematics Mon, 06 Jan 2020 09:11:04 ESTnews497524257Game theory expert expands method to incorporate new categoriesIf economics is a game, Tarun Sabarwal would make a worthy opponent.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-game-theory-expert-method-incorporate.html
Mathematics Economics & Business Mon, 23 Dec 2019 07:56:38 ESTnews496310192Using math and mechanics to explain how bivalve shells fit together so wellUsing math and mechanics, a trio of researchers, two from the University of Oxford, the other the University of Lyon, have learned more about how bivalve shells fit together so well. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Derek Moulton, Alain Goriely and Régis Chirat describe their approach to understanding the interlocking mechanism of bivalve shells.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-math-mechanics-bivalve-shells.html
Mathematics Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:20:01 ESTnews495800104Mathematicians propose new design for wireless nanosensory networksRUDN University mathematicians have developed a new method of collecting data from passive wireless nanosensors. These devices measure the parameters of objects and convert them into a signal. They use microscopic nanoelements and do not have an integral battery pack. Mathematicians have modeled an experiment with gateways, which are made on the basis of unmanned aircraft. It showed that integration with such gateways could provide convenient wireless power transfer to the transmitter and unhampered information collection through flexible and dynamic drone routes. The article is published in the journal Computer Communications.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-mathematicians-wireless-nanosensory-networks.html
Mathematics Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:17:46 ESTnews495800265The mathematics of prey detection in spider orb-websSpider webs are one of nature's most fascinating manifestations. Many spiders extrude proteinaceous silk to weave sticky webs that ensnare unsuspecting prey who venture into their threads. Despite their elasticity, these webs possess incredible tensile strength. In recent years, scientists have expressed increased interest in the spider orb-web as a biological-mechanical system. The web's sensory mechanisms are especially fascinating, given that most web-weaving spiders—regardless of their vision level—use generated vibrations to effectively locate ensnared prey.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-mathematics-prey-spider-orb-webs.html
Mathematics Thu, 12 Dec 2019 12:26:07 ESTnews495375963Researchers develop first mathematical proof for key law of turbulence in fluid mechanicsWhat if engineers could design a better jet with mathematical equations that drastically reduce the need for experimental testing? Or what if weather prediction models could predict details in the movement of heat from the ocean into a hurricane? These things are impossible now, but could be possible in the future with a more complete mathematical understanding of the laws of turbulence.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-mathematical-proof-key-law-turbulence.html
Mathematics Wed, 11 Dec 2019 12:53:02 ESTnews495291176Information technology can save police lives, according to a new studyPolice officers face well-documented risks, with more than 50,000 a year assaulted on the job in the United States.
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-technology-police.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Wed, 11 Dec 2019 12:43:45 ESTnews495290614Mathematician develops model to control spread of aquatic invasive speciesAdjusting the water flow rate in a river can prevent invasive species from moving upstream and expanding their range. An applied mathematician at UT has developed a partial differential equation model to find the desired flow rate to reduce invasive populations.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-mathematician-aquatic-invasive-species.html
Mathematics Thu, 21 Nov 2019 12:54:00 ESTnews493563237Best of the best: Who makes the most accurate decisions in expert groups?Experts don't always agree with one another when making predictions or diagnoses. So how can we find out which expert in a group makes the best and most accurate decisions? An interdisciplinary team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries has developed a simple method for identifying the most accurate experts and tested it successfully in various groups. Their findings have been published in Science Advances.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-accurate-decisions-expert-groups.html
Mathematics Social Sciences Wed, 20 Nov 2019 14:00:07 ESTnews493465129New statistical model improves the predictive power of standardized test scoresA standout essay, high grade point average and stellar standardized test scores are sometimes not enough for college admissions.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-statistical-power-standardized-scores.html
Mathematics Education Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:02:59 ESTnews493401771Sorry, wrong number: Statistical benchmark comes under fireEarlier this fall Dr. Scott Solomon presented the results of a huge heart drug study to an audience of fellow cardiologists in Paris.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-wrong-statistical-benchmark.html
Mathematics Tue, 12 Nov 2019 12:24:51 ESTnews492783885Mathematician discovers method to simplify polymer growth modellingA mathematician from RUDN University has proven that there are no solutions to functional differential inequalities associated with the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ)-type equations, nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations that arise when describing surface growth. The obtained conditions for the absence of solutions will help in studies of polymer growth, the theory of neural networks, and chemical reactions. The article was published in Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-mathematician-method-polymer-growth.html
Mathematics Tue, 12 Nov 2019 08:40:01 ESTnews492768972Mathematicians prove the Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequalitiesRUDN University mathematicians have proven the Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev (HLS) inequalities for the class of generalized Riesz potentials. These results extend the scope of these potentials in mathematics and physics because the main tools for working with such potentials are based on HLS inequalities. New mathematical tools can greatly simplify calculations in quantum mechanics and other fields of physics. The results of the study are published in the journal Mathematical Notes.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-mathematicians-hardy-littlewood-sobolev-inequalities.html
Mathematics Tue, 12 Nov 2019 08:16:08 ESTnews492768963Proving a longstanding conjecture about the area of negatively curved spacesJohns Hopkins mathematician Joel Spruck and a colleague recently succeeded in proving a longstanding conjecture about the area of negatively curved spaces, such as flower petals or coral reefs, a yearslong endeavor full unexpected hurdles and sleepless nights.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-longstanding-conjecture-area-negatively-spaces.html
Mathematics Fri, 08 Nov 2019 08:44:44 ESTnews492425074Mathematicians' work helps change how people voteAs U.S. courts debate gerrymandering—the process of carving up electoral districts to disproportionately benefit one political party—Wes Pegden's work is helping to shape redistricting maps more fairly.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-mathematicians-people-vote.html
Mathematics Fri, 08 Nov 2019 07:40:02 ESTnews492420634Surviving a zombie apocalypse using mathematicsResearchers at the University of Sheffield have explained how to survive a zombie apocalypse this Halloween using maths, in a new outreach project designed to highlight the importance of vaccinations.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-surviving-zombie-apocalypse-mathematics.html
Mathematics Thu, 31 Oct 2019 09:25:15 ESTnews491732708Removing human bias from predictive modelingPredictive modeling is supposed to be neutral, a way to help remove personal prejudices from decision-making. But the algorithms are packed with the same biases that are built into the real-world data used to create them. Wharton statistics professor James Johndrow has developed a method to remove those biases.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-human-bias.html
Mathematics Wed, 30 Oct 2019 08:04:56 ESTnews491641491Mathematician proposes method to simplify the mathematical model of substance transfer through a cell wallA mathematician from RUDN University has proposed a new scheme for numerically solving equations with fractional powers of elliptic operators. The new scheme works faster than the existing ones, because it takes into account the properties of the solutions to such equations at singular points. The results could be useful for calculating diffusion processes—for example, fluid leakage in a porous medium, transfer of nutrients through a cell wall, and breaks in elastic materials. The study was published in Computers & Mathematics with Applications.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-mathematician-method-mathematical-substance-cell.html
Mathematics Tue, 29 Oct 2019 10:49:25 ESTnews491564959Mathematicians prove a theorem that would help calculate the movement of water in porous rockMathematicians from RUDN University have proved the unique continuation theorem for a one-dimensional solution to a fractional order diffusion problem. Such equations are used, for example, to solve problems of the diffusion of particles in a porous medium like the seepage of groundwater. The results of the mathematicians' work could lead to a more accurate analysis of solutions and their numerical simulation. In the general case, there are no such continuation theorems for other classes of similar equations. The article was published in the journal Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-mathematicians-theorem-movement-porous.html
Mathematics Wed, 23 Oct 2019 08:57:10 ESTnews491039801Mathematicians report way to facilitate problem solving in queueing theoryRUDN University mathematicians proved a theorem that will facilitate the solution of problems in queueing theory—a branch of mathematics that describes query chains, for example, in the service sector. These results can be applied in industry, information technology, and neural networks theory. The study is published in Engineering and Informational Sciences.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-mathematicians-problem-theory.html
Mathematics Fri, 18 Oct 2019 09:42:43 ESTnews490610558Information theory as a forensics tool for investigating climate mysteriesDuring Earth's last glacial period, temperatures on the planet periodically spiked dramatically and rapidly. Data in layers of ice of Greenland and Antarctica show that these warming events—called Dansgaard-Oeschger and Antarctic Isotope Maximum events—occurred at least 25 times. Each time, in a matter of decades, temperatures climbed 5-10 degrees Celsius, then cooled again, gradually. While there remain several competing theories for the still-unexplained mechanisms behind these spikes, a new paper in the journal Chaos suggests that mathematics from information theory could offer a powerful tool for analyzing and understanding them.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-theory-forensics-tool-climate-mysteries.html
Mathematics Thu, 17 Oct 2019 03:30:07 ESTnews490501800Models designed to predict when and how the roads of Bizkaia will deteriorateA researcher at the UPV/EHU's Faculty of Engineering-Bilbao has developed behaviour models of the international roughness index (IRI) and the coefficient of transverse friction to predict the future situation of the highway network of Bizkaia. The models provide the chance to predict highway repairs, to consider the type of repairs that need to be carried out and to optimize budget allocations.
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-roads-bizkaia-deteriorate.html
Mathematics Mon, 07 Oct 2019 08:27:46 ESTnews489655660